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Centre Activities, Spring 2001

Musik, tid og medier

- om tiden i musikken og musikken i tiden og om givne mediers indflydelse på begge

Seminaret arrangeres af Projektet Musik og Medier afholder i samarbejde med CfK og Institut for musik og musikterapi.

torsdag d. 5.4.2001 - fredag d. 6.4.2001

på Aalborg Universitet, rum 1.211 Fibigerstræde 16.

Oplægget er som følger:

Selvom repetition stort set altid har været et fremtrædende element i den vesteuropæiske musik, mht. fx både form og figur forekommer den at spille en stadig mere betydende rolle igennem hele det 20. århundredes musik, på tværs af stilarter og genrer. Musikken præges her af den isolerbare byggeklods som figur, ostinat, groove og sample. Dette forhold giver anledning til en række spørgsmål af hvilke vi har valgt følgende som vi i vores sammenhæng finder særlig interessante:

Er gentagelse en forudsætning for påskønnelsen af vor tids musik, og er det i givet fald noget som den musikalske kunstner forholder sig til i udformningen af musikken?

Betyder de reproducerende medier, at komponisten i højere grad bliver sin egen tilhører og at musikken bliver til som produktet af en form for interaktiv behovstilfredsstillelse?

Hvordan oplever vi overhovedet musikalske former fra de i tid udstrakte 1800-tals former til det 20. århundredes dyrkelse af korte musikalske celleagtige enheder.

I hvor høj grad spiller de til enhver tid givne medier ind i oplevelsen af tid og hvordan påvirker og behandler de tidsaspektet?

Vi vil med seminaret nærme os disse spørgsmål, idet vi vil sætte fokus på de kognitive og psykologiske aspekter af oplevelsen af musikalske tidsforhold.

Foruden projektgruppen der består af Martin Knakkergaard, Charlotte Rørdam Larsen og Jakob Cloos Bojesen (ph.d.-studerende) flg. forelæsere indbudte:

Anne Danielsen, Lars Ole Bonde, Peter øhrstrøm, Johan Sundberg, Erik Christensen, Ivar Frounberg og Frede V. Nielsen. Program og manchetter vil senere blive publiceret. Alle er velkomne til at følge seminaret og der er ingen tilmelding nødvendig.

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Cultural-historical approaches to Education, Literacy and Organisations (Community, Institutions, State)

An International Symposium and Ph.D. course

Aarhus, Denmark, June 14-15, 2001

organized by Mariane Hedegaard, President of the International Societyfor Cultural Research and Activity Theory

The symposium will focus on how learning and development are constructed in educational institutions and how societal traditions influence this process.

The themes are:

· how institutions contribute to the development of psychological processes

· how the community/collective contributes to creation of higher mental processes

· how subjective knowledge can be seen in relation to collective knowledge and activity

· how the relation between communication, organisation and appropriation of knowledge can be conceptualised

· what the complexity of literacy means for development of reflection

· how development of reflection is related to instruction

· the role of emotions in the educational process

· creation of identity through classroom activity

Programme:

Thursday, June 14

8.30 Reception/coffee

8.50-9.00 Mariane Hedegaard: Welcome

9.00-9.30 Vladislav A. Lektorsky, Russian Academy of Sciences: Russia Collective activity, distributed knowledge and education

9.30-10.00 Ana Luiza Bustamente Smolka Angel Pino, State University of Campinas, Brazil: The concepts of activity and social practice under scrutiny: deepening theoretical arguments for a possibl interpretation

10.00-10.30 Coffee Break

10.30-11.00 Roxane H. Rodrigues Rojo, Catholic Pontifical University of São Paulo: Brazil School literacy: Three literate practices at basic school and the construction of monovocality

11.00-11.30 King Beach, Michigan State University, USA: Negotiation and generalization between certification- and work-related aspects of an apprenticeship class

11.30-12.00 James Wertsch, University of Washington, USA: Remembering and re-experiencing the past

12.00-13.30 Lunch

13.30-15.30 Discussion with students arranged around four themes: Ana Luiza Bustamente Smolka, Bernd Fichtner, Vladislav A. Lektorsky, Seth Chaiklin, Harry Daniels, Mariane Hedegaard, Pablo del Rio, Roxane H. Rodrigues Rojo, Bernard Schneuwly, Serena Veggetti, James Wertsch, Amelia Álvarez, King Beach, Antónia Candela, Berthel Sutter

15.30-16.00 Coffee break

16.00-16.30 Pablo del Rio, University of Salamanca, Spain: The cultural making of higher psychological functions: The impact of TV and mass media on attention and directivity

16.30-17.00 Seth Chaiklin, University of Aarhus, Denmark: Individual development in sociey: Minority children in Denmark

17.00-17.30 Discussion

19.30 Dinner

Friday, June 15

8.30-9.00 Bernd Fichtner, University of Siegen, Germany: The significance of Spinoza’s categories (Ethics) for cultural research on an empirical level

9.00-9.30 Harry Daniels, The University of Birmingham, UK: Bernstein and Activity Theory

9.30-10.00 Serena Veggetti, University of Rome, Italy: The development of reflexion as connected with instruction

10.00-10.30 Coffee Break

10.30-11.00 Amelia Álvarez, Univerisity of Salamanca, Spain: From cultural diagnosis to cultural design. Approaching the Vygotskian concept of cultural developmental ages from the analysis of the cultural systems of activity

11.00-11.30 Antónia Candela, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, México: Discursive construction of the physicists identity in high education classes

11.30-12.00 Discussion

12.00-13.30 Lunch

13.30-15.30 Discussion of students and projects in four groups: Pablo del Rio, Bernd Fichtner, Vladislav A. Lektorsky, Harry Daniels, Mariane Hedegaard, Ana Luiza Bustamente Smolka, Roxane H. Rodrigues Rojo, Berthel Sutter, Serena Veggetti, Amelia Álvarez, King Beach, Antónia Candela, Seth Chaiklin

15.30-16.00 Coffee break

16.00-16.30 Berthel Sutter, University of Karlskrona/Ronneby Soft Center, Sweden: Intergenerational and inter-institutional learning

16.30-17.00 Mariane Hedegaard, University of Aarhus, Denmark: Qualitative variation in students' participation in the classroom community and how this influenze his/her learning and development

17.00-18.00 Consultation on students and projects

From cultural diagnosis to cultural design. Approaching the Vygotskian concept of cultural developmental ages from the analysis of the cultural systems of activity.

Amelia Álvarez

University of Salamanca, Spain

In this presentation, the central role of the cultural activity systems for development will be stressed through the analysis of the social settings in which children are embedded in their daily life. The opportunities to learn that different cultural contexts offer to children are examined through several cultural/developmental dimensions. Results evidenced some significant differences on several dimensions between those contexts in which children are allowed to participate in some leading activity of their cultural community -most in rural settings - and those in which children are not embedded in any of the leading activities - most in urban settings. The same criteria used for the diagnosis of cultural-developmental traits of a community could usefully support the empowerment of the communities for child rearing and education. This is the key idea suggested by Vygotsky and developed later by Elkonin: if we support the cultural historical theses on the social (cultural) origin of higher psychological functions, developmental assesment of children's capacities should be both cultural and personal or, in the words of Elkonin, should include the evaluation of "the system child-in-society".

Negotiation and generalization between certification- and work-related aspects of an apprenticeship class

King Beach, Michigan State University, USA

Knowledge and skill generalization as depicted in the research literature often appears as individuals enacting mental processes, with surrounding educational environments being more or less supportive of those processes. However, some forms of educational organization embody knowledge and skill generalization as their very reason for existence. Such forms of organization generally grow up between other already-existing institutions, e.g. school and work, and serve to mediate the two, facilitating people's transitions from one to the other. The electrician apprenticeship classroom that is the focus of this study is an example of such an organization. Described elsewhere by the author as a mediating transition, participation in these intermediary organizations involves intense negotiation between aspects typically viewed as 'schooling," and others clearly associated with work. The presentation will demonstrate how these negotiations can be understood as the construction of generalization.

The electrician apprenticeship class that is the focus of this preliminary study prepares novice electricians to take the state certification exam for their master electrician license. It also prepares them to interpret electrical codes on the job that have been generated by the legal system. Analyses of discourse between novice electricians and the master electrician teaching the course suggest that in some instances how one would interpret a particular electrical code or regulation for the examination and how one would enact it on the job are identical. In many more instances interpretative distinctions are made between certification- and work-related uses of the codes around issues of safety, economics, and how up-to-date the code is in relation to work technology. In a few instances distinctions are made to the point that there is little relation between the code as interpreted for the examination, and the code as used on the job.

Discussion of findings will involve how educational organizations that embody mediating transitions differ from many aspects of K-12 education, and how collectively negotiated generalization during mediating transitions involve not only continuities across activities, but also the construction of contrasts and distinctions.

Discursive construction of the physicist’s identity in high education classes

Antonia Candela, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, Mexico

The interest of this work is to study how physicists make sense of their practices in their own voices. Most of the ethnographic and the sociocultural studies about physics describe the activities of physicists at work. The focus of this presentation is in physicists discourse in high education classes in order to study the image of the discipline and the cultural identity as it is socially constructed in the classrooms.

A discourse analysis (Edwards & Potter, 1992) of the attributions that physicists give to their discipline and to the most famous physicists is done to constitute a community of shared knowledge.

It is found that the image given to physics is contingent and not empiricist (Gilbert & Mulkay, 1984) because it is shown as a historical and social construction developed by some physicists through their personal characteristics, oriented by their arbitrary desires, willingness and preferences.

Individual development in sociey: Minority children in Denmark

Seth Chaiklin, University of Aarhus, Denmark

Psychology, cultural-historical or otherwise, is concerned with the processes by which individuals develop. Historically the primary theoretical approaches have focused on individual characteristics and processes, with the expectation that this was the best way to understand development. The cultural-historical tradition (as well as some other traditions) have drawn attention to the need to consider the societal contribution to the development process, but has not made so much progress in specifying the ways by which these processes operate. One would expect that it is possible to formulate some generalisations about the role of societal processes in individual development, but this will require theoretical developments that are not readily apparent in the current state of our science. I will therefore present some examples of letters that Danish schoolchildren, who are cultural minorities, have written to Danish adults. I will discuss how the content of these letters can be interpreted in terms of personality development. The special focus of my presentation will be to clarify ways in which one can understand specific societal processes in individual development.

Bernstein and Activity Theory

Harry Daniels, The University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

I will draw on two theoretical traditions: Activity Theory (Engestrom, 1999) and the work of Basil Bernstein (Bernstein, 1981). The starting point in this discussion is the suggestion that in order to try and understand why people act in particular ways we should study thinking, feeling and communication in the context of specific forms of institutional organisation and practice.

In Vygotsky’s account of the social formation of mind he was particularly concerned with the mediational properties of tools and signs most notably speech. Some researchers have tended to focus on semiotic means of mediation, such as speech, (Wertsch,1991) others have tended to focus more on activity itself (Engestrom,1996). An attempt will be will be made here to bring aspects of the strengths of both approaches together.

Engestrom has developed a model of activity systems which includes other people (community), social rules (rules) and the division of labour between the subject and others (Cole and Engestrom, 1993. p8). This paper will explore some of the possibilities afforded by Bernstein’s work for the development of this model.

The cultural making of higher psychological functions: the impact of TV and mass media on attention and directivity

Pablo del Rio, University of Salamanca, Spain

Starting from the theoretical vygotsyan approach to the historical cultural building of higher functions, direct, general implications shall be considered for present western cultures, and empirical research will be presented as exemplification of cultural changes in voluntary attention assocated with TV practices, cognitive functions tied to technological tools and media, and directive functions (pragmatic, social, moral) functions related to general cultural changes.

The significance of Spinozas categories of his Ethics for cultural historical research

Bernd Fichtner, University of Siegen, Germany

In our Brazilian-German research project on reading and writing as a cultural practice of children and youth we understand culture as the specific human medium within which the sources of development interact to produce development.

Intercultural studies deal with the problem of relativism or universalism comparing processes of learning and developing in different cultures.

We want to discuss how in a qualitative empirical research categories, found in Spinozas Ethics, offer possibilities to overcome the dichotomy of relativism and universalism.

We understand our presentation also as a contribution to the monistic paradigm of the cultural historical approach, especially the relationship between the thinking of Vygotsky and Spinoza.

Qualitative variation in students’ participation in the classroom community and how this influence his/her learning and development

Mariane Hedegaard, University of Aarhus, Denmark

Results from 20 interviews with young persons from immigrant Turkish’ homes show that there is a big variation in how these young persons have participated and felt about their participation in the classroom community. Both school mates, teachers, parents, subject-matter areas and the activity of the single student contribute to the creation of a pattern of participation that influences his/her social relations, motives, well-being and learning activity.

A theoretical model for conceptualising participation in a community as multifaceted activity will be promoted. Participation in a community is conceptualised both from an imagined perspective of society as well as a personal relation to the community from the perspective of his/her future; i.e., of what makes sense for the young person in relation to his future directed motives.

Collective activity, distributed knowledge and education

V.A.Lektorsky, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Collective activity is not a simple extension of individual activity. It is not a transference of the features of individual activity (in particular, relations of activity, actions and operations) to a group. Collective activity presupposes inter activity and interactions. Interactions of the agents of collective activity can be understood as communication. In this case knowledge exists in a distributed form. The studies of collective activity show that the process of interiorization is not a simple transference of outer activity into an "inner plan" (as P.Galperin thought), but an individual appropriation of the forms of collective activity. In this case the very notion of activity changes. Actions as a part of interhuman interactions are not the same as actions, connected with production of a thing or transforming an objective situation. The results of interhuman interactions are not in a total disposal of their creators and can't be controlled by them in a complete degree.

I will analyze the results of recent pedagogical experiments in Russia from this point of view.

School literacy: Three literate practices at basic school and the construction of monovocality

Roxane Helena Rodrigues Rojo, Catholic Pontificial University of São Paulo, Brazil

In recent research about literacy (Graff, 1979; Scribner & Cole, 1981; Street, 1984; 1993; Gee, 1990; Kleiman, 1991; 1995; Signorini, 1995), writing and literacy construction are no more viewed as a universal phenomenon, socially and culturally indeterminate, which brings about progress, civilization, knowledge access and social rise. On the contrary, nowadays, literacy is defined as a whole of social practices related to writing, which takes place at specific contexts, to fulfill specific goals. Then, school literacy practices are only one type of literacy social practice that develops some capacities among a multiplicity of possible literate practices. Clearly, in complex modern societies, it remains a dominant type of practice, generalized and inclusive.

The cause-effect relations between empowerment, social access (and success) and school knowledge - historically related with the illuminist rationalism and the globalization of scientific and technologic rationality in modern occidental societies - are reviewed by researchers. Signorini (1995), e.g., notice that there are countless contexts where it is difficult to the literate by school adapt himself to the expectations of social communication situations where there are no symmetrical social partners. It happens because his tendency to monologic discourse and to control and imposition and because of his difficulties to negotiate roles and perspectives (“communicative inflexibility”). Thereby, from this perspective of literacy, we can ask: beside to teach to read and write, what other literate capacities school literacy constructs?

In this presentation, I will analyze some samples of classroom interaction at public and private basic schools - of different disciplines (science, mathematics, history, geography) -, focusing three literate practices (literate dialogue, text production and text reading) to sustain two main ideas:

· that, on the one hand, the construction of school based knowledge (“scientific”), at the linguistic and discursive level, comes across the construction of the on-so-called “objective”, explicit and adequate (“appropriate”) discourse, through classroom instructions, explanations and expositions; and

· that, on the other hand, these discourses that circulates at classrooms are also characterized by its monovocality, monolingualism, monologism and aut(h)oritarism (Bakhtin, 1935).

The concepts of activity and social practice under scrutiny: Deepening theoretical arguments for a possible interpretation

Ana Luiza Bustamante Smolka Angel Pino, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil

The concept of activity has been at the core of the cultural-historical perspective. More recently, many efforts have been made by different authors, with the aim of conceptually elaborating on this concept, strengthening and making more explicit its implicit social character. While dealing with such a concept, researchers have pointed out that the notion of social practice becomes relevant and turns into a main issue. As acknowledged by Hedegaard, Chaiklin and Jensen (1999), at the introduction of Activity Theory and Social Practice, the notion of social practice is theoretically unsaturated, being used by different theoretical perspectives with no particular epistemological position. And they state: Whether there is a surplus of meaning for the concept of social practice that exceeds the notion of activity deserves further consideration.

The purpose of this proposal is to take Hedegaard, Chaiklin and Jensen’s challenge into account, bringing this issue into discussion and inquiring about this possible surplus of meaning.

Joining the many current efforts and hoping to be contributing to the ongoing debate, we will be discussing the relations between activity and semiotic means (Tulviste, 1999), searching for a conceptual refinement while deepening the analysis and interpretation of crucial concepts such as social, symbolic, cultural and historical, their interrelationships and mutual implications, in the context of the assumed theoretical perspective (Pino, 2000; Smolka, 2000).

For this, we take as an important point of reference Vygotsky’s notes in the manuscript of 1929, Concrete Human Psychology.

Admitting that the concept of social practice might, indeed, be considered as theoretically unsaturated (as many other concepts such as action, activity, interaction, construction), acquiring particular meanings and specific conceptual status within the very frame of a given theoretical perspective, we shall argue that Vygotsky’s notion of history, embedded in the dialectical-historical materialism, sets and sustains a significant matrix for the interpretation of social practice, empowered by the concept of praxis as collective, mediated, productive, meaningful, significant activity.

Intergenerational and inter-institutional learning

Berthel Sutter, University of Karlskrona/Ronneby Soft Center, Sweden

School learning is almost exclusively organized for compartalization, sorting children by age and specializing instruction by age and ability. This structural framework of school education is beneficial for certain kinds of interaction and learning experiences, but it hampers and makes others impossible. In the Fifth Dimension - a learning setting that is an alternative or alternate to the school - the structural properties are the opposite. Fifth Dimension is inter-institutional. It consists of a local coalition of, for example, a library, a school, a university department, and a municipality. It is also intergenerational, in that it comprises children, youth, undergraduates, teachers, librarians, researchers, and other adults. Such an organizational constellation is no coincidence. It is an intentionally designed way to open up new forms of communication as well as new uses of artifacts in order to promote learning. In short, this is the ideological program of the Fifth Dimension.

What about the practice of the Fifth Dimension? An answer to this question will be presented in a short lecture. The answer is framed by an activity-theoretical understanding of learning, claiming that learning has three fundamental aspects, namely that learning is a collective enterprise, is mediated by means of a multitude of artifacts, and is closely connected to development of an activity.

Thus, an empirically based answer will be given to the question: Does the Fifth Dimension promote, more than school learning generally does, 1) the collective character of learning, 2) the productive uses of a great variety of artifacts (i.e. "multi media"), and 3) the development of the activity itself?

The development of reflexion as connected with instruction

Serena Veggetti, University of Rome, Italy

Remembering and re-experiencing the past

James Wertsch, Washington University, USA

In outlining an account of collective and individual memory, it is important to clarify a distinction between remembering the past, which involves an experience-far, voluntary representation, on the one hand, and "re-experiencing," which involves an experience-near, often involuntary representation, on the other. This distinction applies to the study of individual memory, where one finds differences between standard episodic memory and trauma, but it also is suggestive for the study of collective memory, where scholars have been tempted to speak of collective trauma, the myth of the "eternal return," and so forth. In my presentation I shall outline and illustrate this distinction in the analysis of collective memory, especially collective memory as produced by the state in museums and other memory inducing institutions.

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Aldring og bevægelse i idræt

Tværvidenskabelig forskningskonference

Center for Idræt, Aarhus Universitet

23.-24. august 2001

Center for Idræt ved Aarhus Universitet har fornøjelsen at invitere til centerets første tværvidenskabelige forskningskonference ”Aldring og bevægelse i idræt”. Formålet med konferencen er tematisk at belyse alder og aldring set i relation til idræt som praktiseret kultur og idræt som profession.

At blive ældre er en udviklingsproces, som drejer sig om menneskets kropslige, identitetsmæssige og sociale forandringer i hele livet. Aldring er et processuelt begreb for den konstante biologiske, fysiologiske og cellulære forandring, som er alle menneskers skæbne. I de seneste årtier er begreberne alder og aldring også blevet samfunds- og kulturanalytiske kategorier og genstand for stigende forskningsinteresse.

Også i idrætsforskningen er man begyndt at interessere sig for alder som kulturel kategori - måske fordi flere og flere mennesker i alle aldre dyrker idræt, og fordi idræt er en måde at forholde sig til aldring på.

Konferencen sætter temaet aldring og bevægelse i idræt ind i en bred teoretisk sammenhæng, hvilket kendetegner idrætsforskningen og aldersforskningen i øvrigt. Derfor rummer konferencen forskellige faglige tilgangsvinkler: kropssociologiske, psykologiske, pædagogiske, idé- og kulturhistoriske samt medicinske og fysiologiske.

Konferencen henvender sig til idrætsforskere, aldersforskere, idrætsundervisere på forskellige uddannelsesinstitutioner samt øvrige professionsudøvere, der måtte have interesse i temaet.

Indhold:

Da alderen blev en diagnose. En medicinsk-idéhistorisk analyse.

Henning Kirk, seniorkonsulent og dr.med.

Livsbearbejdelse og livsberigelse - psykologiske indfaldsvinkler.

Kirsten Kaya Roessler, cand.psyk., ph.d., Idrætsforsk.

Den voksende aktivering af ældre gennem sport, gymnastik og fysisk aktivitet.

Morten Hoff, cand.scient., Syddansk Universitet.

ældreidræt - forebygger det aldring?

Lis Puggaard, lektor, ph.d., Syddansk Universitet.

Den aldrende krop i et kulturanalytisk perspektiv.

Jørgen Povlsen, lektor, Syddansk Universitet.

Når alderen indhenter én. Om aldring og idrætslæreres arbejdsliv og faglige identitet.

Mette Krogh Christensen, adjunkt, Aarhus Universitet.

Kroppsøvingslærerens fysiske identitet - venn eller fiende?

Fiona Dowling Næss, ph.d., Norges Idrettshøgskole.

Uddannelse, dannelse og træning - livshistoriske fortællinger.

Else Trangbæk, lektor, ph.d., Københavns Universitet.

Exploring Body Narratives.

Andrew Sparkes, professor of social theory, University of Exeter.

Praktiske oplysninger:

Tid: Torsdag og fredag d. 23. - 24. august 2001.

Begge dage fra kl. 10.00 - 17.00.

Sted: Center for Idræt og Center for Kulturforskning, Aarhus Universitet.

Pris: Kr. 400,-

Tilmelding og information:

Mette Krogh Christensen
Center for Idræt, Aarhus Universitet
Katrinebjergvej 89 C, 8000 århus C
Tlf.: 89 42 44 43
E-mail: mkc@idraet.au.dk


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Updated 5 May 2003 by smc. Please mail comments to the web editor at Centre for Cultural Research.